WHAT PROGRAMS NEED: ESSENTIAL RESOURCES FOR WOMEN'S STUDIES PROGRAMS Susan M. Hartmann (Guidelines, Rationale, and Information Assembled by Women's Studies Directors at Big Ten Universities, November 1991) Because of the diversity of programs--reflecting different histories, structures, and other conditions unique to a particular campus--it is inappropriate to set forth absolute guidelines regarding levels of support needed by all Women's Studies programs. It is important, however, to recognize the particular needs that all Women's Studies programs share. 1. Instructional staff: Faculty lines, either 100% in Women's Studies or shared between Women's Studies and another academic unit, are necessary to (1) staff core and other interdisciplinary Women's Studies courses; (2) provide instructional stability and the ability to control and plan course offerings; (3) provide a service component for the program; and (4) insure that faculty members are evaluated upon and rewarded for teaching, service, and research in the area of Women's Studies. At institutions where graduate teaching assistants form part of the instructional staff, Women's Studies should be allocated GTAs to assist with teaching in the introductory-level courses and to perform other functions. It is critical that at least some permanent base-budget FTE lines be controlled by Women's Studies programs. 2. Administrative and support staff: The chief administrator (chair, director, coordinator) should be a senior tenured faculty member with at least 50% of her appointment assigned to administration. In addition, most well-established programs have an associate or assistant director; this position helps to alleviate the service burdens of faculty members who have joint appointments and consequently obligations to two academlc units. Associate directors may be faculty positions that include teaching and advising. Support staff should be sufficient to keep the office open throughout the entire day and to meet the other demands on women'studies programs described below. 3. Teaching loads for women's studies faculty members should recognize situations in which faculty members hold joint appointments. Faculty members with appointments in two academic units experience greater committee work, larger numbers of student avisees, and the need to keep current in two scholarly fields. Where possible, teaching loads should reflect these greater burdens by allowing regular released time from teaching, such as one semester every three years. 4. Operating budgets should be at least equivalent to those established for other academic units, around 5-10% of total budget, or significantly more if the budget is very small. For reasons outlined below, Women's Studies programs usually incur expenses for such items as postage, programming, and travel that exceed those of more traditional academic units. 5. Space: In Women's Studies programs where faculty have joint appointments, the faculty members usually have offices in their home departments. In order to foster within the Women's Studies program intellectual exchange, collegiality, identification with the Women's Studies office by Women's Studies faculty offices should be a high priority. Characteristics of women's studies programs that increase the need for resources: (1) Women's Studies programs usually form the focal point for teaching and research on women throughout the University. Therefore, programs need sufficient support staff and operating budgets to handle phone calls and written communicabon with faculty and departments across the campus. Also, other academic units routinely call upon Women's Studies programs to co-sponsor guest speakers and other events, and operating budgets need to reflect these costs. (2) As interdisciplinary programs in a relatively new field, Women's Studies programs need resources to sponsor lectures and colloquia in areas of knowledge not well known to most faculty around the University. Such programs are also important in presenting speakers from minority groups which may not be adequately represented among existing faculty. (3) Faculty members in Women's Studies experience service obligations that are heavier than normal. Women's Studies faculty are called upon to provide expertise for many other academic units, especially when the campus is undergoing curriculum integration/mainstreaming. They are also asked to help other units recruit female faculty members. Further, those with joint appointments need to advise students, attend meetings, and serve on committees in two academic units. (4) Women's Studies programs need travel budgets sufficient to provide for the need of most of their faculty members to attend two sets of professional meetings--those in Women's Studies and those in the faculty member's disciplinary area. (5) Women's Studies programs receive an unusually high number of requests for information. Representatives of the media and other individuals from the campus community and outside telephone or drop in with requests for advice or information about virtually anything having to do with women. Frequent calls come from the media, women's organizations, businesses, and government agencies for expertise on issues concerning women. Women's studies programs form an important link between the University and the community, but they need resources in the form of staff time, postage, newsletter expenses, and the like, in order to do this effectively. (6) Instruction in Women's Studies courses is often more labor intensive than in other fields due to the relative youth of the field, the controversial nature of some of the material, and principles of feminist pedagogy that encourage students to take more imtiative in and reponsibility for the learning process. Feminist pedagogy calls for more involvement from both faculty and students, which in practice means a commitment to smaller classes and lower faculty:student ratios. (7) As increasing numbers of universities adopt general education curricula that require courses focusing on diversity, Women's Studies courses will experience increased enrollment demands. They are likely to receive pressure to convert to large lecture-based class formats, away from discussion-based courses that emphasize the development of critical thinking and writing skills. Women's studies programs will need adequate resources to maintain their excellence in undergraduate teaching while meeting increased enrollment demands.